Israel's connection to Damascus in Is 17 is puzzling but there are some clues to follow.
Ephraim-- one of the tribes is mentioned. The fortified cities disappear from the area of Ephraim. that by the way is the Mountains of Israel area, the hilly area west of the Jordan, and north of Jerusalem and includes the current area called the West Bank but stretches over to the Med, and includes Bethel, Shechem and Shiloh if the map I was looking at is right.
In some way the sons of Aram which are modern day Syrians are like the glory of the sons of Israel v 3. But the next verse says something that make that kind of glory sound disastrous for them.
Repeating that by rephrasing it Isaiah in v 4 talks of the glory of Jacob fading.
And at the end of the chapter he talks again of the terror and destruction-- overnight-- that comes upon those who plunder Israel or pillage her.
So in some way, whatever happens, destroys Damascus overnight, and seems to also harm Israel in some way too, but to a much lesser extent. And the harm seems to land on much of the West Bank.
Jeremiah 49: 23-27 is a parallel passage. It gives a little more detail. Fire to the wall of Damascus that destroys the fortified towers. Her young men fall in the streets "In that day". The general sense of the passage involves something happening so fast there is no time to flee and it is done in a day. The repetition of the wall of Damascus then the fortified towers suggest that their defenses have utterly failed and somehow the fire that is feeding on the walls devours the fortifications as well.
Amos mentions the same incident in chapter 1 v 3-5. My Bible side notes say that the expression for 3 transgressions and for 4 I will not revoke it's punishment mean a measure of full iniquity and inevitable judgement.
Zechariah 9:1-8 also discusses Damascus being destroyed in the same context as Lebanon, and GAZA!
Whatever happens, it stops Damascus from being the longest continuously inhabited city on the planet to being a fallen ruin for flocks of sheep to lie down in, with nobody to frighten them. Damascus is removed from being a city becoming that fallen ruin.
A lot of the references include disasters on nearby nations from Lebanon, to Jordan and in the case of Jeremiah 49, include Elam over in Iran, which is also referenced in Ez 32. They might not all happen at the same time but enough of them are repeated in context that I think it might be significant.
So whatever sets this powder keg off (and Ez 32 suggests it's the constant use of terrorism by most of these nation groups) takes out Damascus almost by accident. It happens so fast there's no time to flee. In the aftermath a good chunk of the West Bank has cities that are removed, some of Israel fades a bit but Syria ends up being a non contender in the Ez 38 war.
Iran changes from wanting to wipe Israel off the map to going in to steal anything they can.
Lebanon, Gaza and the West Bank as well as Jordan are no longer involved in the Ezek 38 war-- they seem to be out of the picture in some way.
And when Ez 38 happens, Israel is dwelling IN THE MOUNTAINS OF ISRAEL ie the West Bank again. Having come back from a war of some sort.
So it does sound like the Damascus event happens as a side effect of something else going on. Nobody meant to take her out, but it happens, and it's so fast they can't flee. That isn't the way the IDF operates. They always warn their targets to get out of the way.
This time, they don't. Because Damascus is overtaken by the flames so fast that her young men lie dead in her streets in a day.